GLACIERS OF ALASKA 13
Glaciers of the Eastern Chugach Mountains. The Chugach Mountains are a part of •the St. Elias Range, forming the Coast Range westward from Malaspina Glacier to Cook Inlet, and are from 6000 to 10,000 feet in altitude. The Bering Glacier, a large piedmont -glacier just west of Mt. St. Elias, and largely unexplored, is fed by unnamed tributaries irom the south side of the Chugach Mountains and descends nearly to sea level, being fringed by a border of outwash fans from Yakataga to Controller Bay. Its area is probably between 1000 and 1500 square miles.
Sir Edward Belcher described some of the features of Bering Glacier in 1837,1 and Seton Karr observed it in 1886.2 Its general position has been shown upon several maps8 .and its western portion was carefully mapped 4 and described in 1903-1906 by Martin 6 who also briefly described the adjacent Martin River Glacier, the Slope Glacier and the -small glaciers of Ragged Mountain near Katalla.
Glaciers of the Lower Copper River. The Miles, Childs, Sheridan, and adjacent glaciers of the front of Chugach Mountains and lower Copper River are not discussed here because described fully in later chapters.
Farther up Copper River the glaciers on the north side of the eastern Chugach Mountains are largely unexplored. One of them is Tana Glacier of the Nizina headwaters, & small north or leeward-slope glacier, which forms a striking contrast to the great Bering Glacier of the south slope. Schwan and Woodworth Glaciers e drain into the Copper by Tasnuna River7 and there are smaller ice tongues as at Cleave Creek, Worthington Glacier, east of Valdez, the ice tongues at the head of Bremner River, and many •others.
Glaciers of Prince William Sound. The Valdez, Shoup, and Columbia Glaciers, and the ice tongues of College Fiord, Harriman Fiord and other portions of Prince William Sound are to be fully described in later chapters.
Glaciers North of the Chugach Mountains. As in the case of the main St. Elias Range this part of the same range shows fewer ice tongues on the north or leeward side than those -that descend on the ocean side to Prince William Sound. Many of them are of good size, however, as the Krrik, Matanuska, Tazlina, and others. These glaciers were first mapped and described by Mendenhall and Glenn in 1898, by Martin in 1905 and by Paige an d Knopf in 1906.8 Several of the larger ones may be through glaciers connecting with
i Quoted by Blake, Amer. Journ. Sci., 2d series, Vol. XL1H, 1867, pp. 100-101, and by Davidson, Trans. And Proc. Geog. Soc., Pacific, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 42-43.
»Seton Zarr, H. W., Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., Vol. IX, 1887, pp. 269, 274, 276; Shores and Alps of Alaska, London, 1887, pp. 188-142.
' U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey, Charts 8502 and 8513.
U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 336, 1908, PI. I.
«Map of Controller Bay Region, No. 601 A, U. S. Geol. Survey, also in Bull. 385, PL IL
Chitina Quadrangle, Map 601, U. S. Geol. Survey; also in Bull. 374, PI. I.
« Martin, G. C., Bull. 250, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1905, pp. 16-17; Bull. 835,1908, pp. 16, 46-54, 64-65, and map. Pis. HandV.
«Schrader, F. C., 20th Ann. Kept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part YH, 1899, pp. 362, 864, 396-898 and map, Pis. •20 and 21.
' Chitina Quadrangle, Map 601, U. S. Geol. Survey; also in Bull. 374, PI. I.
« Mendenhall, W. C., 20th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part VII, 1900, pp. 326-827 and map, No. 16.
Glenn. E. F., War Dept., Adj. Gen. Office, No. XXV, 1899, p. 58 and map in pocket.
Martin, G. C., Bull. 289, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, pp. 7,15, and map, PI. I.
Paige, S. and Knopf, A., Bull. 827, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1907, pp. 88-37 and map, PI. I.